Transgenderism in Jamaica

With gays, lesbians and bisexuals holding prominence in the fight for rights and freedoms here transgendered persons often get overlooked or totally ignored even at the advocacy level. It was not until some time last year that trans persons have begun to get some well needed attention from groups here on the island. That however has since wained as funding problems and the prominence of homophobia always seem to overshadow this group.

Tolerance levels for gays in general as we know is very low here let alone for other variants so I can imagine many trans persons who would like to seek some sort of intervention but not knowing where to begin to do so.

The two most prominent transgendered persons so far are pre-operative male to female individuals with one hosting their own ning page to link with other trans persons from the Caribbean. The other I know personally came to me via a crisis intervention case I was involved in almost two years ago where “she” was attacked by two men in Kingston on the streets.
Very little information is available to the gay community who finds it remarkable that someone would want to change their gender via re-assignment surgery and some of the comments at first glance of the latter of the two are mean. It is strange that gays and lesbians wish to be tolerated by the main stream but can’t tolerate another variant within or close to our own group. Sad, we have a long way to go to realise our country’s motto “Out of many, one people” it’s an awful set up…. the mainstream hates us as gays and lesbians, then trans people are ridiculed, vilified and insulted by gays.

The unamed transgendered grouping had begun a series of meetings to discuss their own issues through JFLAG but I don’t know what has happened since last year as I have left the organization, funding is a problem for them like many other Non=governmental Organizations. So I should think things are on hold for now. The group consisted of 14 members at my last count mostly Females (FTM – female to male) and the two males (MTF – male to female) all preoperative many were not sure if they wanted to go through full gender re-assignment surgery but most were not happy with their physical presentation versus their feelings “between the ears” (what they feel themselves to be). We don’t have a fully transgendered Jamaican on record as yet. One of their man concerns is to separate trans issues from gay issues and to show that trans people are not homosexuals wishing to be drag queens or butch lesbians hence changing their physical gender to be satisfied. They want to reach out to the GLB community and dispel the misconceptions.

All in all I will try on this blog to present positive issues regarding this group as too often they are overlooked.

Check out
This Site’s Main purpose is to bring all people of the transgendered community in the Caribbean together at one central place where we can share information, start friendships, air our concerns and hopes for a more understanding, tolerant Caribbean and world for the larger part.


Dissecting “Gaydar”: Accuracy and the Role of Masculinity–Femininity

SpringerLink is one of the world’s leading interactive databases for high-quality STM journals, book series, books, reference works and the Online Archives Collection.

Gerulf Rieger Æ Joan A. W. Linsenmeier Æ
Lorenz Gygax Æ Steven Garcia Æ J. Michael Bailey
Received: 5 November 2007 / Revised: 5 May 2008 / Accepted: 5 May 2008

for more on this study & to purchase the Journal and other articles click the images. It’s an interesting read. Priced at $34.00

Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008
Abstract ‘‘Gaydar’’ is the ability to distinguish homosexual and heterosexual people using indirect cues. We investigated the accuracy of gaydar and the nature of ‘‘gaydar signals’’ conveying information about sexual orientation. Homosexual people tend to be more sex atypical than heterosexualvpeople in some behaviors, feelings, and interests. We hypothesized that indicators of sex atypicality might function as gaydar signals. In Study 1, raters judged targets’ sexual orientation from pictures, brief videos, and sound recordings. Sexual orientation was assessed with high, though imperfect, accuracy. In Study 2, different raters judged targets’ sex
atypicality from the same stimuli. Ratings of sexual orientation from Study 1 corresponded highly with targets’ selfreports of sex atypicality and with observer ratings of sex
atypicality from Study 2. Thus, brief samples of sex-atypical behavior may function as effective gaydar signals.

Sex-typed behavior
‘‘Gaydar’’ refers to the ability to distinguish homosexual and heterosexual people using indirect cues rather than explicit information about sexual orientation. Gaydar encompasses at
least two distinct phenomena. First, gaydar may reflect the detection of intentional interpersonal signals. For example, flirtation may be associated with unusually long eye gazes
and other nonverbal behaviors (e.g., Moore, 1985, 2002), and the sex of the targets of such signaling may provide information relevant to sexual orientation. Second, gaydar may
reflect the detection of stable behavioral or psychological differences between homosexual and heterosexual people. For example, there are stereotypes about gay men’s (and hence heterosexual men’s) patterns of interests, movement,and speech. To the extent that such stereotypes correspond to actual differences between homosexual and heterosexual
people, information about a person’s behavioral patterns and psychological traits may also provide information regarding sexual orientation.

Little research has been done to date regarding gaydar via intentional interpersonal signaling. Nicholas (2004) conducted an ethnographic study of gaydar involving participant
observation and interviews with gay men and lesbians. Based on this research, Nichols described the use of the ‘‘gaydar gaze’’ to signal a homosexual identity to other homosexual
individuals. The idea that individuals from marginalized and partly hidden minorities may attempt to find and communicate to each other in this manner seems eminently plausible.
We note, however, that there is likely nothing specific about the association of lengthy eye gazes and homosexuality. For example, heterosexual people with a romantic or sexual
interest in a person of the other sex may also signal their interest in this way. The other subtype of gaydar, as noted above, may depend in part on the validity of stereotypes regarding behavioral and psychological differences between homosexual and heterosexual
people. These stereotypes include a variety of phenomena that have been explored in two, almost completely separate, research programs.

Murder Music Still available

here is another artist who has songs about killing gays and lesbians, below is the lyrics to “That’s right”

Beenieman – That’s Right Lyrics
Zo, hey, zagga zing, hey, ziggy zagga zow!
Clap your hands to this, then get ready fi do all of it
Zagga zagga go na na na na na, all rudebwoy wave oonu hands up like this
Alright, cool

A from mi bun chi chi man and we go bun sodemite
And everybody bawl out seh that’s right (It’s alright)
And when mi bun hypocrite and we mi bun parasite
And everybody bawl out seh that’s right (It’s alright)
And when mi boom dung corruption wid a stick a dynamite
And everybody bawl out seh that’s right (It’s alright)
Mi go a stage show a DJ and tune yah last night
And everybody bawl out seh that’s right

Verse 1:
Cause when we bun chi chi man nuttin nuh wrong
And when we bun lesbian nuttin nuh wrong
Bun a borrow taste and a bite nuttin nuh wrong
Bun Susan from she a sleep wid Sharon
And from yuh know yuh straight let mi see your two hand
Cause yuh nuh mix up inna nuh bangarang
Straight and di narrow road a dat mi deh pon
That he gwaan one leap to destruction, sing this song

A from mi bun chi chi man and mi go bun sodemite
And everybody bawl out seh that’s right (It’s alright)
And we go bun hypocrite and we go bun parasite
And everybody bawl out seh that’s right (It’s alright)
And when mi boom dung corruption wid a stick a dynamite
And everybody bawl out seh that’s right (Bun Wey!!!)
Mi go a stage show a DJ and tune yah last night
And everybody bawl out seh that’s right

Verse 2:
So when mi put a fire pon a few and everybody bawl (That’s Right)
Bun a sodemite and everybody bawl (That’s Right)
Bun a parasite and everybody bawl (That’s Right)
Bun a bwoy wey meet anotha man dung a (Stoplight)
Nuff bwoy sell out fi get a piece a di (Spotlight
Da people dem a bawl and a shout (That’s not right)
Give mi one a dem gal rather flop all di (Hot type)
Day and night now mi gal a long time

Cau when mi bun chi chi man and mi go bun sodemite
And everybody bawl out seh that’s right (It’s alright)
And we go bun chi chi man and we go bun sodemite
And everybody bawl out seh that’s right (It’s alright)
And when mi boom dung corruption wid a stick a dynamite
And everybody bawl out seh that’s right (It’s alright)
Mi go a stage show a DJ and tune yah last night
And everybody bawl out seh that’s right

Verse 3:
Mi bun a bwoy from wey a blow anotha man flute
Person ago nyam cherry and fruit
Caught drop pants inna club a him a don yute
And seh that him a bad that was untrue
A chi chi baboon and chi chi tranquil
Try to send mi court fi get a one suit
But dem waan march and protest discue
Words sound and power mi put dem pon mute
Beenie Man a talk di truth

A when we bun chi chi man and we go bun sodemite
And everybody bawl out seh that’s right (It’s alright)
And when we bun hypocrite and we go bun parasite
And everybody bawl out seh that’s right (It’s alright)
And when mi boom dung corruption wid a stick a dynamite
And everybody bawl out seh that’s right (That’s right)
Mi go a stage show a DJ and tune yah last night
And everybody bawl out seh that’s right

Shockingly the “All Battyman fi dead song is still on YOUTUBE
also Buju Banton’s Boom Bye Bye as well LINK I thought that these tunes would have been removed since the whol public outrage.


Live Nation cancels Buju Banton concerts

A series of US concerts by reggae star Buju Banton have been cancelled after protests from LGBT groups.

Banton was due to perform in Chicago, Las Vegas, Dallas and Houston.

However, promoter Live Nation has said they are cancelled and ticket holders will be offered refunds.

A campaign was organised via website and more than 650 people complained to Live Nation, who own the House of Blues venues where Banton was scheduled to perform next week.

Banton’s notorious 1990s hit Boom Bye Bye appears to incite the burning, shooting in the head and pouring acid over the faces of gay people.

In October 2006 two of his concerts in the US were cancelled after pressure from gay activists.

In July 2007 he signed up to the Reggae Compassionate Act, promising not to perform songs that advocate homophobia, in a deal brokered by Stop Murder Music activists.

He later denied that he had made any such commitment.

The Stop Murder Music campaign spearheaded by UK gay activist group OutRage! has brought about the cancellation of hundreds of concerts and sponsorship deals.

Adolescent MSM in Jamaica HIV Risk, Homophobia and Gender Stereotypes in Relationships

Adolescent MSM in Jamaica-HIV risk, homophobia, violence and gender stereotypes in relationships
Presented by Nesha Haniff, Jamaica
Jamaica AIDS Support for Life, Senior Program Advisor, Kingston, Jamaica

The Abortion Issue: ‘Conscience’ should be unencumbered or unconditional

Abortion vs conscience

(a segway of sorts to abortion but a similar principle in terms of conscience is a problem here with the pending legislation (the abortion bill) with almost a theocratic dosage down our throats)

(Letter to the Gleaner 27.08.09)
Your Letter of the Day, August 6, titled ‘Termination of Pregnancy Bill not punishment’, penned by The Working Group For Women’s Reproductive Health and Rights (WG), is deserving of comments.

Before commenting on the bill, may I express a few concerns on the depth of the abortion debate.

It would seem that a rational debate on abortion would not be complete without considering the impact of the practice of contraception on pregnancy and ultimately the birth of babies. And, the practice of contraception is not restricted to the usage of condoms and tablets. The range of devices is much wider, including from tubal ligation to abstinence.

To exclude the practice of contraception is to begin the debate at the advanced stage of the foetus, thereby concealing some of the fundamental arguments of abortion or other ways by which the desire of not having a baby is achieved. When placed under clinical microscopic examination, the sperm cells trapped inside a condom resemble swimming tadpoles (life-filled and searching for the egg of the female for the purposes of procreation).

One study has shown that one ejaculation of sperm contains over 1,300 sperm cells with the potential of creating as many foetus/babies. Imagine then the potential of a single sex act that produces 15 ejaculations (1,300 x 15 = 19,500 foetuses/babies). Further imagine the chance of survival of such a pregnancy! The carrier would likely burst asunder.

The study has further shown the largest number of babies born from a single pregnancy to be 17. None was larger than a thumb and all died shortly after birth due to their underdevelopment. On the other hand, single births produce developed, healthy and surviving babies more times than not.

The Proposed Legislation

When the sex act is looked at holistically, it drives us to the logical conclusion that to have developed, healthy and surviving babies, the potential of the sex act is drastically diminished internally. It discloses further, that abortion is not restricted to the insertion of medical instrument into the body and the removal of the foetus. The practice of contraception, which we have sugar-coated, commercialised, promoted and marketed as ‘family planning’, also has had the effect of interrupting or aborting the procreation process. Likewise, the intervention of nature (the drastic internal destruction of sperm cells to allow for the development, birth and survival of healthy babies) strongly suggests that abortion is a prerequisite for our survival.

“The proposed bill,” says the WG, “acknowledges that the patient is at the centre of the debate and, therefore, the midwife or practitioner is obliged to refer the patient to another doctor who may provide the service.”

Like Donovan Cole’s ‘Condoning terrible acts’, page B8, The Sunday Gleaner, August 9, 2009, it is awkward and inconsistent to provide for ‘freedom of conscience’ not to perform abortions while imposing responsibility for providing referrals and information to other doctors from whom the service may be obtained.

‘Conscience’ should be unencumbered or unconditional. It should not be coaxed or trapped in a compromising position. Moreso, there seems to be no compelling reason to consider or treat one’s legal right to abortion as a case of emergency, barring incidents of rape and life-threatening circumstances. It should be convenient and sufficient for the Ministry of Health to provide the public with information on the availability of the service and where it can be obtained. Places like post offices, hospitals, clinics, pharmacies and other medicare facilities, including private ones which wish to volunteer, should be sufficient outlets for the dissemination of referrals and information.

The proposed legislation should be reviewed with the view to absolving the pro-lifers from having anything to do with the commission of an abortion, including providing referrals and information as to where the service may be obtained.

I am, etc.,
Lionel Russell

Gay rights: a delicate issue

DIANE ABBOTT (see post on Minister’s pink advocacy below)

Jamaica may find itself the subject of a drive by the British High Commission in Kingston to support gay rights. That is, if recent newspaper articles in Britain are to be believed. The Sunday Times newspaper here in London said a few weeks ago, “The gay Foreign Office Minister Chris Bryant MP is championing a controversial drive to fund equal-rights activists in homophobic regimes.” The article went on to quote Bryant as saying, “It is completely up to staff in our embassies and consulates around the world to decide the most appropriate and effective way of making our case, but we do encourage this important work because British values are based on fair play and the protection of the individual’s freedom. We are not naive about this work. In some places oppressive regimes make it some of the toughest work we do.” According to the article, programmes on gay rights by High Commissions abroad could involve financing gay pride marches or financing legal challenges by local campaigners.

Apparently there will be money made available.

Even the British courts are taking an interest in attitudes to homosexuality in Jamaica. Last month, a 24-year-old convicted female drug dealer was in court arguing that she should not be deported back to Jamaica because she was a lesbian and her life would be in danger. She claimed to have had six lesbian affairs in prison and was now in a steady relationship with another female prisoner. Interestingly, the Home Office did not dispute the fact that the woman’s life would be in danger if she returned to Jamaica as an open lesbian. Instead, the Home Office lawyer argued that the woman was not really a lesbian at all. They pointed out that the woman had been in sexual relationships with men in the past. And that it was a former boyfriend who introduced her to the drugs trade. The Home Office lawyer went on to argue that the lesbian relationships in prison proved nothing and said, “If she wanted to be sexually active, there was no other option; there was no other choice except celibacy.”

It may be that the British High Commission will not have a drive on gay rights. The Sunday Times journalists obviously had sight of some sort of document, but they may be exaggerating the significance of what they saw. In any case, it is not difficult to imagine how a campaign on the subject of gay rights by the High Commission would be received by the Jamaican populace. Parliament is on its summer recess at the moment. But when I next see the foreign office minister appearing concerned, I will suggest that he meets with Jamaica nationals here in Britain to get a more nuanced view of attitudes to gay men and women in Jamaica. This is a delicate issue on which public opinion in Jamaica and Britain take widely differing views. There definitely needs to be more dialogue.

Homophobia in Jamaica

Jamaican society’s stance on homosexuality continues to get bad press abroad. Most recently the New York Times ran an article on Jamaica entitled “Gays Live and Die in Fear in Jamaica”. It featured a victim of violence called Sherman. The article said, “Even now, about three years after a near-fatal gay bashing, Sherman gets jittery at dusk. On bad days, his blood quickens, his eyes dart and he seeks refuge indoors.

“A group of men kicked him and slashed him with knives for being a ‘batty boy’ – a slang term for gay men – after he left a party before dawn in October 2006. They sliced his throat, torso and back, hissed anti-gay epithets, and left him for dead on a Kingston corner.”

The article went on: “Sherman, meanwhile, is simply trying to move on with his life. But he said he will always remember how, after his attack, patrolmen roughly lifted his bloodied body out of their squad car when a man admonished them for aiding a ‘batty boy’. A woman shamed them into driving him to a hospital; they stuffed him in the car’s trunk.”

The article also quotes Jamaican poet Staceyann Chinn – now living openly as a lesbian in Brooklyn, New York – who described how she was raped in Jamaica because of her sexual preference. The article quoted Yvonne McCalla Sobers as wellwho said, ”My thought is there are far more men having sex with men in this country than you would ever think is happening.” There was the obligatory discussion of the homophobic lyrics of Jamaican popular music. And Dr Trevor Tulloch of St Andrew’s Hospital ascribed the soaring level of prostate cancer in Jamaica to men being scared of the digital rectal examinations needed to diagnose it, he is quoted as saying, “because it is a homophobic society, there’s such a fear of the sexual implications of having the exam that men won’t seek out help”.

Because attitudes to homosexuality in Jamaica are so hostile, it is not sufficiently understood how damaging its stand on the issue is outside the country. Just a few months ago a boycott of Jamaican tourism and products like rum and Red Stripe beer was launched in a gay bar in New York. The organisers said, “Most people view Jamaica as a laid-back tourist destination. This easy-going image is betrayed by the immense brutality against gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) individuals. Indeed, public officials, media, entertainers, and much of the population seem to celebrate homophobia, as if it is a national pastime. The anti-gay sentiments have become a frightening national psychosis that urgently needs to be addressed and treated. A boycott is an unfortunate measure that must be taken to influence Jamaican officials, so they will stop allowing murder and violence against GLBT people.”

The boycott has so far been unsuccessful. But a country dependent on tourism cannot afford to ignore the fact that attitudes to homosexuality in other countries have moved on. There are probably as many people in Britain who are privately judgemental about homosexuals and lesbians as there are in Jamaica. But the British take the view that what people do in the bedroom is their affair. So gay marriage is legal and leading politicians in both the government and opposition parties have publicly acknowledged their sexual orientation and married their partners. It is difficult to imagine such a state of affairs coming about in Jamaica any time soon.

But Jamaica could do more to stress that despite the blood-curdling lyrics of much of its popular music, it is a more tolerant society than people think. And violence against gay people should be universally condemned.

Downing St responds to petition against deportation of gays

A petition on the Downing St website calling on the Prime Minister to stop deporting gays and lesbians to countries where they may be imprisoned because of their sexuality has prompted a response from the government.

4,595 people signed the petition.

It argued that “recent cases highlight the extreme danger lesbians and gays face because of their sexuality if deported to a number of countries. Sending people back to their possible death is totally unacceptable.”

In its response the government said the issue was one of “the removal from the UK of gays and lesbians who have been found not to be in need of protection.”

“Enforced returns to any country will only be undertaken where, after very thorough examination of the asylum claim, it is decided that the individual would not be at risk of execution, torture, unjust imprisonment, or other forms of persecution.

“Where an asylum application has been refused, there is a right of appeal to the Asylum Immigration Tribunal or an opportunity to seek judicial review through the higher courts.”

The government also rejected the idea that gay asylum seekers be given an automatic right to stay in the UK.

“The government recognises that the conditions for lesbian and gay people in some countries are such that there may be individuals who are able to demonstrate a need for international protection.

“Instructions to decision-makers are clear that they may qualify for asylum on the grounds of persecution as a member of a particular social group.

“However, there can be no presumption that each and every asylum seeker of a particular nationality who presents themselves as being lesbian or gay should automatically be afforded protection in the UK.

“It is in keeping with the terms of the Refugee Convention that every case is assessed individually on the basis of all the available information against the Refugee Convention and European Convention on Human Rights criteria.”

Last month immigration minister Phil Woolas faced criticism from gay activists after he published a piece on LabourList claiming that the Home Office is fair on LGBT asylum.

“Practically nothing written in the article matches the actual experience of LGBT asylum seekers at the hands of the Home Office and the UK Border Agency,” said campaigner Paul Canning.

Psychologists repudiate gay-to-straight therapy

By DAVID CRARY, AP National Writer David Crary, Ap National Writer Wed Aug 5,

NEW YORK – The American Psychological Association declared Wednesday that mental health professionals should not tell gay clients they can become straight through therapy or other treatments.

Instead, the APA urged therapists to consider multiple options — that could range from celibacy to switching churches — for helping clients whose sexual orientation and religious faith conflict.

In a resolution adopted on a 125-to-4 vote by the APA’s governing council, and in a comprehensive report based on two years of research, the 150,000-member association put itself firmly on record in opposition of so-called “reparative therapy” which seeks to change sexual orientation.

No solid evidence exists that such change is likely, says the report, and some research suggests that efforts to produce change could be harmful, inducing depression and suicidal tendencies.

The APA had criticized reparative therapy in the past, but a six-member task force added weight to this position by examining 83 studies on sexual orientation change conducted since 1960. Its comprehensive report was endorsed by the APA’s governing council in Toronto, where the association’s annual meeting is being held this weekend.

The report breaks new ground in its detailed and nuanced assessment of how therapists should deal with gay clients struggling to remain loyal to a religious faith that disapproves of homosexuality.

Judith Glassgold, a Highland Park, N.J., psychologist who chaired the task force, said she hoped the document could help calm the polarized debate between religious conservatives who believe in the possibility of changing sexual orientation and the many mental health professionals who reject that option.

“Both sides have to educate themselves better,” Glassgold said in an interview. “The religious psychotherapists have to open up their eyes to the potential positive aspects of being gay or lesbian. Secular therapists have to recognize that some people will choose their faith over their sexuality.”

In dealing with gay clients from conservative faiths, says the report, therapists should be “very cautious” about suggesting treatments aimed at altering their same-sex attractions.

“Practitioners can assist clients through therapies that do not attempt to change sexual orientation, but rather involve acceptance, support and identity exploration and development without imposing a specific identity outcome,” the report says.

“We have to challenge people to be creative,” said Glassgold.

She suggested that devout clients could focus on overarching aspects of religion such as hope and forgiveness in order to transcend negative beliefs about homosexuality, and either remain part of their original faith within its limits — for example, by embracing celibacy — or find a faith that welcomes gays.

“There’s no evidence to say that change therapies work, but these vulnerable people are tempted to try them, and when they don’t work, they feel doubly terrified,” Glassgold said. “You should be honest with people and say, ‘This is not likely to change your sexual orientation, but we can help explore what options you have.'”

One of the largest organizations promoting the possibility of changing sexual orientation is Exodus International, a network of ministries whose core message is “Freedom from homosexuality through the power of Jesus Christ.”

Its president, Alan Chambers, describes himself as someone who “overcame unwanted same-sex attraction.” He and other evangelicals met with APA representatives after the task force formed in 2007, and he expressed satisfaction with parts of the report that emerged.

“It’s a positive step — simply respecting someone’s faith is a huge leap in the right direction,” Chambers said. “But I’d go further. Don’t deny the possibility that someone’s feelings might change.”

An evangelical psychologist, Mark Yarhouse of Regent University, praised the APA report for urging a creative approach to gay clients’ religious beliefs but — like Chambers — disagreed with its skepticism about changing sexual orientation.

Yarhouse and a colleague, Professor Stanton Jones of Wheaton College, will be releasing findings at the APA meeting Friday from their six-year study of people who went through Exodus programs. More than half of 61 subjects either converted to heterosexuality or “disidentified” with homosexuality while embracing chastity, their study said.

To Jones and Yarhouse, their findings prove change is possible for some people, and on average the attempt to change will not be harmful.

The APA task force took as a starting point the belief that homosexuality is a normal variant of human sexuality, not a disorder, and that it nonetheless remains stigmatized in ways that can have negative consequences.

The report said the subgroup of gays interested in changing their sexual orientation has evolved over the decades and now is comprised mostly of well-educated white men whose religion is an important part of their lives and who participate in conservative faiths that frown on homosexuality.

“Religious faith and psychology do not have to be seen as being opposed to each other,” the report says, endorsing approaches “that integrate concepts from the psychology of religion and the modern psychology of sexual orientation.”

Perry Halkitis, a New York University psychologist who chairs the APA committee dealing with gay and lesbian issues, praised the report for its balance.

“Anyone who makes decisions based on good science will be satisfied,” he said. “As a clinician, you have to deal with the whole person, and for some people, faith is a very important aspect of who they are.”

The report also addressed the issue of whether adolescents should be subjected to therapy aimed at altering their sexual orientation. Any such approach should “maximize self-determination” and be undertaken only with the youth’s consent, the report said.

Wayne Besen, a gay-rights activist who has sought to discredit the so-called “ex-gay” movement, welcomed the APA findings.

“Ex-gay therapy is a profound travesty that has led to pointless tragedies, and we are pleased that the APA has addressed this psychological scourge,” Besen said.